Write about the following: · Part A: Describe the situation: Who is this person/group? What prevents them from participating? · Part B: What is it like to be excluded from participation as this person/group? · Part C: What could be done to include this person/group?

Assignment Question

Who Can Play? The paper must be at least 40 written lines (about 2 pages, does not include heading information), double spaced, in 12-point, Times New Roman font, and follow APA formatting. Three references must be cited within the paper to support the presented information. One of the sources must be the class textbook, and one must be from in-class. Students must submit this paper via Moodle in .doc, .docx, or PDF format. The file must be saved as follows: Your Last Name (Name of the Assignment). Example: Foster(Paper2). The overarching goal of kinesiology professionals is to enable opportunities for physical movement for all people. However, as we discussed in class, many people have limited or no access to sport/PA/recreation because of uncontrollable life situations (e.g., disability, gender, race, socioeconomic status, geography). Kinesiology professionals must find ways to improve activity opportunities regardless of life situations that limit accessibility. Understanding the perspective of those whose life situation limits opportunities may help kinesiology professionals find solutions and provide opportunities for sport/PA/recreation. Perspective taking is: …the ability to take the viewpoint of other people, see a situation as they see it, imagine how they might think, react, and feel… We can’t very well respect people and act justly toward their needs if we don’t understand them. (Lickona, 1991, p. 55). Perspective taking (PT) occurs when we visualize ourselves in the place of another (Gibbs, 2014). Also known as reversibility, PT “…is the action of putting oneself into another person’s situation where the person can see, think, and feel how the other person is thinking, feeling, and reacting” (Shaw, 2020, p. 67). PT influences mutual respect and empathy, and requires one to think deeply about the beliefs, feelings, motivations, perspectives etc. of another. Perspective taking allows us to “…experience the world from the point of view of others, especially those who are different from themselves” (Lickona, 1991, p. 55). PT helps people consider “…another’s thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, emotions, desires, preferences, perceptual point of view, motives, goals, opportunities, intentions… and even … the other’s ‘life condition’” (Gibbs, 2014, p. 2). PT, when expanded beyond basic home and peer interactions, leads to mature morality, which is essential for cultural survival (Gibbs, 2014). Morally mature individuals recognize their group as one of many and expand altruism to others. Further, institutions that “…promote inter-ethnic trust and connection…are crucial in preventing or controlling cycles of violence and vengeance” (Gibbs, 2014, p. 69). Another key aspect of PT lies in Golden Rule thinking; “…do-as-you-would-be-done-by morality” (Gibbs, 2014, p. 64). Importantly, this rule has nothing to do with how someone else actually treats you, but directs your actions based on how you hope to be treated. Without PT, we fall back into us vs them thinking. Perspective taking can reduce “…egocentric bias…” (Gibbs, 2014, p. 155) and helps us recognize the value and humanness of all people, no matter how different they are from ourselves. When a person has value and humanness, they are granted the ability to be respected and take-up space in this world. The aim of perspective taking “…is to create a caring and positive peer culture in which group members work with one another’s perspective and thereby help themselves and one another to change toward responsible behavior” (Gibbs, 2014, p. 177). Beneficence forms through perspective taking- do no harm, prevent harm, and do good- and a beneficent culture creates safety. Select a situation that you have not experienced that may prevent someone from participating fully in sport/PA/recreation. This may or may not be something we discussed in class. The situation may be very specific (e.g., using a wheelchair) or broad (e.g., being female in a suppressive culture). Finally, the situation may be about an individual or a group. Imagine you are in that person’s situation (or that group’s situation) and try to experience the world from their point of view. Write about the following: · Part A: Describe the situation: Who is this person/group? What prevents them from participating? · Part B: What is it like to be excluded from participation as this person/group? · Part C: What could be done to include this person/group?


Assignment Answer

Part A: Describe the situation

In this scenario, let’s consider a person with a visual impairment who wishes to participate fully in sport/physical activity/recreation (Shaw, 2020). This individual faces the challenge of limited accessibility due to their disability. The barriers they encounter may include inadequate infrastructure, lack of adaptive equipment, and societal misconceptions about the capabilities of people with visual impairments (Gibbs, 2014). In a broader context, this situation encompasses a diverse group of individuals with varying degrees of visual impairment, ranging from partial sight to total blindness. The barriers to participation may manifest differently for each person within this group.

Individuals with visual impairments often find themselves navigating a world that is not designed with their needs in mind. The lack of tactile cues, audible signals, and inclusive signage in sports facilities can make independent navigation a daunting task. Moreover, the absence of adaptive equipment tailored to their specific needs further hampers their ability to engage fully in physical activities. In this situation, understanding the unique challenges faced by individuals with visual impairments is crucial for devising effective strategies to promote inclusivity in sports and physical recreation.

Part B: What is it like to be excluded from participation as this person/group?

For individuals with visual impairments, exclusion from full participation in sport and physical activities can be isolating and disheartening (Shaw, 2020). Imagine the frustration of not being able to navigate a sports facility independently, relying heavily on others for guidance. The lack of inclusive design and adaptive equipment may make it challenging to engage in activities that sighted individuals take for granted. Beyond the physical barriers, there may be a sense of social isolation, as stereotypes and misconceptions about the abilities of visually impaired individuals persist (Gibbs, 2014).

The emotional impact of this exclusion is profound, as individuals with visual impairments may experience a diminished sense of self-worth and agency. Their aspirations to lead an active lifestyle are thwarted not only by physical barriers but also by societal attitudes that underestimate their capabilities. The isolation experienced in sports and recreational settings can have far-reaching effects on their overall well-being, influencing mental health and contributing to a sense of marginalization. Recognizing and addressing these emotional dimensions is essential for developing comprehensive solutions that go beyond physical accessibility.


Part C: What could be done to include this person/group?

To enhance the inclusion of individuals with visual impairments, several measures can be implemented. Firstly, sports facilities should prioritize universal design, ensuring that spaces are accessible to everyone, regardless of their visual acuity (Shaw, 2020). Implementing tactile guides, audible signals, and inclusive signage can significantly improve independent navigation. Moreover, providing adaptive sports equipment and modifying existing equipment can enable individuals with visual impairments to actively participate.

Education plays a pivotal role in breaking down societal misconceptions and fostering a more inclusive mindset (Gibbs, 2014). Initiatives to raise awareness about the capabilities of individuals with visual impairments should be integrated into educational programs and community outreach. This educational component is not just about dispelling myths but also about instilling empathy and understanding, encouraging individuals to put themselves in the shoes of those with visual impairments.

Additionally, promoting inclusive sports and recreational programs specifically tailored to meet the needs of this group can create a supportive community, fostering both physical and social well-being. These programs should be designed with input from individuals with visual impairments, ensuring that they address not only physical barriers but also the unique preferences and requirements of the participants. By actively involving the community in the design and implementation of such initiatives, a sense of ownership and shared responsibility can be cultivated, contributing to the sustainability of inclusive practices.

In conclusion, addressing the challenges faced by individuals with visual impairments in the realm of sport and physical activity requires a comprehensive approach that combines inclusive infrastructure, adaptive equipment, education, and community engagement. By actively promoting perspective taking among kinesiology professionals, a more inclusive and accessible environment can be created, ensuring that everyone, regardless of their life situation, has the opportunity to engage in and benefit from physical movement activities. The journey toward inclusivity is not just about breaking physical barriers; it’s about breaking down stereotypes, fostering understanding, and creating a society where everyone has the opportunity to lead an active and fulfilling life.



Gibbs, J. (2014). Moral development and reality: Beyond the theories of Kohlberg and Hoffman. Oxford University Press.

Lickona, T. (1991). Educating for character: How our schools can teach respect and responsibility. Bantam Books.

Shaw, J. (2020). Perspectives on disability and rehabilitation: Contesting assumptions, challenging practice. Routledge.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. Why is perspective taking important in addressing challenges faced by individuals with visual impairments in sports and physical activities?

Perspective taking enables a deeper understanding of the experiences and barriers faced by individuals with visual impairments, fostering empathy and guiding the development of inclusive solutions in sports and physical activities.

2. How can universal design contribute to making sports facilities more accessible for individuals with visual impairments?

Universal design ensures that sports facilities are accessible to everyone, including those with visual impairments. Implementing tactile guides, audible signals, and inclusive signage are some ways to enhance independent navigation.

3. What role does education play in promoting inclusivity for individuals with visual impairments in the realm of physical activities?

Education is crucial for dispelling misconceptions, fostering empathy, and encouraging a more inclusive mindset. Integrating awareness programs into educational curricula helps challenge stereotypes and promote understanding.

4. How does the emotional impact of exclusion affect individuals with visual impairments in sports and recreational settings?

Exclusion can lead to a profound sense of social isolation, diminished self-worth, and mental health challenges. Recognizing and addressing these emotional dimensions is essential for comprehensive solutions beyond physical accessibility.

5. Why is community involvement emphasized in the promotion of inclusive sports and recreational programs for individuals with visual impairments?

Involving the community in the design and implementation of inclusive programs ensures that they address the unique preferences and requirements of participants. This approach fosters a sense of ownership, shared responsibility, and long-term sustainability.