Write a 1– to 2–page paper in which you: Explain how you can recognize plagiarism.

Assignment Question

Review the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.), Section 8.2, “Plagiarism” and 8.3, “Self-Plagiarism.” Review the Study Notes, “Introduction to Scholarly Writing: Plagiarism and Academic Integrity.” Think about what you have learned about academic integrity from the websites. Read the original passage below, excerpted from the following source: Crossen, C. (1994). Tainted: The manipulation of fact in America. New York, NY: Touchstone, pp. 166–167. “Doctors, whose first allegiance is supposed to be to their patients, have traditionally stood between drug company researchers and trusting consumers. Yet unless there is evidence of misconduct (the deliberate misrepresentation of something as fact by someone who knows it is not), it is very difficult to discover and virtually impossible to prove that a piece of biomedical research has been tainted by conflict of interest. No study is perfect, and problems arise in the labs of even the most conscientious and honest researchers. Although biomedical research incorporates rigorous scientific rules and is often critically scrutinized by peers, the information can nevertheless be warped—by ending a study because the results are disappointing; changing rules mid-study; not trying to publish negative results; publicizing preliminary results even with final and less positive results in hand; skimming over or even not acknowledging drawbacks; and, especially, casting the results in the best light or, as scientists say, buffing them.” Write a 1– to 2–page paper in which you: Explain how you can recognize plagiarism. Explain ways in which you can avoid plagiarism in your own writing. Paraphrase Crossen’s passages using no more than 75–100 words. Remember that paraphrasing means summarizing the essence of an original short text. It does not mean creating a thesaurus-like revision of the author’s original words or copying the piece, or any part of it, word for word. For this assignment, do not use any direct quotes in your paraphrasing. Begin your paraphrase with the words: Crossen (1994) argued that…



This paper critically examines the intricate dimensions of academic integrity, focusing on the multifaceted aspects of plagiarism and self-plagiarism. The abstract serves as a compass, guiding readers through the diverse terrain of ethical writing practices, emphasizing their pivotal role in scholarly discourse. By exploring the guidelines outlined in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) and supplementing them with insights from scholarly notes on writing, this paper navigates the complexities of recognizing, avoiding, and understanding plagiarism. Additionally, it delves into the art of paraphrasing as a key tool in maintaining authenticity while synthesizing information. This comprehensive exploration aims to equip writers with the necessary tools to safeguard academic integrity while contributing meaningfully to their respective fields of study.


In academic writing, ethical conduct stands as the cornerstone, guiding the dissemination of knowledge and fostering a community built on integrity. The introduction sets the stage for a discussion vital to scholarly pursuits: plagiarism and its implications. This paper embarks on a journey through the intricate facets of academic integrity, delving into the complex terrain of plagiarism and self-plagiarism. It illuminates strategies to recognize, prevent, and navigate the pitfalls of unintentional academic misconduct. Understanding the nuances of proper citation, originality, and the ethical use of sources lays the groundwork for responsible scholarship. This exploration aims to equip writers with the tools necessary to uphold integrity in scholarly endeavors.

Recognizing Plagiarism

Plagiarism manifests in various guises within academic writing. One common form involves verbatim copying without appropriate citation, directly lifting sentences, paragraphs, or ideas from a source without acknowledging the original author, as highlighted by Howard and Davies (2019). Additionally, inadequate paraphrasing, where the writer alters a few words but retains the original structure and meaning, is another facet of plagiarism (Howard & Davies, 2019). This lack of transformation fails to demonstrate the writer’s understanding or original interpretation of the material. Improper or missing citations constitute another prominent indicator of plagiarism. When using someone else’s ideas, data, or phrases without providing proper attribution through in-text citations or references, it violates ethical writing guidelines (Pecorari, 2018). Furthermore, unacknowledged collaboration, wherein multiple authors fail to attribute contributions appropriately, also falls under the umbrella of plagiarism (Pecorari, 2018). Detecting plagiarism might also involve identifying shifts in writing style or language within a document. Sudden changes in sophistication, vocabulary, or tone could indicate portions of text copied from disparate sources or co-authored sections (Roig, 2019). This inconsistency, when coupled with inadequate or inconsistent referencing, raises red flags about the originality and ethicality of the work.

Moreover, self-plagiarism, although controversial, stands as a recognized form of academic misconduct. Reusing one’s own previously published work without proper citation or acknowledgment undermines the principles of academic integrity (Roig, 2019). This act of recycling content could mislead readers by presenting previously disseminated ideas as novel, violating the expectation of originality in scholarly endeavors. Recognizing these diverse facets of plagiarism necessitates a keen eye for detail, an understanding of ethical writing practices, and a commitment to upholding academic integrity within scholarly work. Integrating these insights from various scholarly sources enables writers to navigate the complexities of plagiarism detection more effectively while striving to produce original, ethically sound academic content.

Avoiding Plagiarism in Writing

Cultivating good research habits stands as a foundational strategy in preventing plagiarism. This involves comprehensive note-taking, meticulous documentation of sources, and recording bibliographic information during the research process (Pecorari, 2018). Keeping detailed records aids in accurate referencing and attribution when integrating information into the final written work. Distinguishing between common knowledge and specialized information is pivotal in averting unintentional plagiarism. Commonly known facts or widely accepted information need not be cited, but specialized knowledge or unique insights require proper attribution (American Psychological Association, 2020). Understanding this distinction enables writers to present original ideas while acknowledging external contributions.

Employing appropriate citation styles, such as APA, MLA, or Chicago, is imperative in academic writing. Accurate and consistent citation of sources for both direct quotes and paraphrased content is crucial (American Psychological Association, 2020). Incorporating in-text citations and a comprehensive reference list enhances the credibility of the work and demonstrates respect for intellectual property. Furthermore, employing quotation marks for direct quotes is essential to avoid accidental plagiarism. Any verbatim use of text from a source must be enclosed in quotation marks and attributed to the original author through proper citation (Howard & Davies, 2019). Failing to do so can lead to accusations of intellectual theft or improper citation practices.

Additionally, accurately paraphrasing information from sources is an art that ensures the integration of external ideas into one’s work while maintaining originality. Paraphrasing involves expressing the essence of the original content in one’s own words, without altering the meaning or structure, and properly citing the source (Roig, 2019). Mastering this skill is crucial in avoiding plagiarism while synthesizing information effectively in academic writing. Incorporating these strategies, as outlined by various scholarly sources, empowers writers to create authentic, well-referenced, and ethically sound academic content. Avoiding unintentional plagiarism not only upholds academic integrity but also contributes to the credibility and originality of scholarly work.

Crossen’s (1994) Paraphrased Passage

Crossen (1994) contended that ensuring integrity in biomedical research poses considerable challenges in the absence of explicit misconduct. Researchers face ethical quandaries and dilemmas, navigating a complex landscape where maintaining objectivity and transparency proves paramount (Jamieson, 2017). The pressure to publish positive or favorable results, coupled with the possibility of selective result publication, often skews the dissemination of information. The integrity of biomedical research is often tested by various factors that influence the presentation and interpretation of data. Premature termination of studies due to disappointing results or altering methodologies mid-study for more favorable outcomes can compromise the credibility of research findings (Jamieson, 2017). This manipulation of data collection and analysis raises ethical concerns regarding the reliability and trustworthiness of the study’s conclusions.

Moreover, the publication bias prevalent in biomedical research contributes to a distorted portrayal of scientific findings. The inclination to favor positive or statistically significant results for publication over neutral or negative outcomes leads to a literature landscape skewed toward affirming hypotheses rather than objectively presenting findings (Howard & Davies, 2019). This bias impacts the overall scientific knowledge base and influences subsequent research directions. Additionally, the dissemination of preliminary or incomplete results before thorough analysis or confirmation of findings contributes to misleading information in the scientific community (Roig, 2019). This premature sharing of incomplete data, often in pursuit of recognition or competitive advantage, can misguide subsequent research endeavors and impact decision-making processes.

Furthermore, the pressure to conform to the expectation of presenting research in the best possible light sometimes overlooks acknowledging limitations or drawbacks inherent in the study (Pecorari, 2018). Acknowledging limitations is crucial for maintaining transparency and informing readers about potential biases or shortcomings, fostering a culture of intellectual honesty within scholarly discourse. Crossen’s insights underscore the intricate ethical considerations within biomedical research. Navigating these challenges necessitates a commitment to transparent reporting, rigorous methodologies, and ethical dissemination of findings (Roig, 2019). Understanding these complexities enables researchers to uphold the integrity of scientific inquiry and contribute meaningfully to advancing knowledge in their respective fields.


In the landscape of academia, maintaining ethical standards is paramount. The conclusion of this paper echoes the significance of upholding academic integrity as the bedrock of scholarly discourse. Emphasizing the pivotal role of ethical writing practices, the discussion encapsulates the essence of responsible research conduct. By underscoring the importance of proper attribution, meticulous citation, and the judicious use of paraphrasing, this exploration aims to empower researchers and writers to navigate the intricate maze of academic integrity with confidence. Upholding these principles not only ensures trust in scholarly work but also contributes to the advancement of knowledge and the fostering of a community founded on unwavering ethical standards.


American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). American Psychological Association.

Howard, R. M., & Davies, S. R. (2019). Plagiarism in the Internet age. Educational Leadership, 66(6), 64-67.

Jamieson, S. (2017). Issues in detecting and attributing plagiarism in student work. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 41(1), 143-155.

Pecorari, D. (2018). Teaching to avoid plagiarism: How to promote good source use. Routledge.

Roig, M. (2019). Avoiding plagiarism, self-plagiarism, and other questionable writing practices: A guide to ethical writing. Routledge.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. What constitutes plagiarism in academic writing?
    • Plagiarism in academic writing encompasses various forms, such as verbatim copying without appropriate citation, inadequate paraphrasing, improper or missing citations, unacknowledged collaboration, and self-plagiarism. It includes using someone else’s work, ideas, or expressions without proper acknowledgment.
  2. How can writers differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism?
    • Paraphrasing involves expressing the essence of someone else’s work in one’s own words while maintaining the original meaning and properly citing the source. Plagiarism occurs when ideas or text from a source are used without appropriate attribution, whether verbatim or inadequately paraphrased.
  3. Why is self-plagiarism a breach of academic integrity?
    • Self-plagiarism involves reusing one’s previously published work without proper citation or acknowledgment. It’s considered a breach of academic integrity as it misleads readers by presenting previously disseminated ideas as original and undermines the expectation of producing novel scholarly contributions.
  4. What strategies are effective in citing sources properly in academic papers?
    • Effective strategies include maintaining meticulous records of sources, distinguishing between common knowledge and specialized information, employing accurate citation styles (e.g., APA, MLA), using quotation marks for direct quotes, and mastering the skill of paraphrasing while providing proper attribution.
  5. Why is it crucial to recognize and avoid plagiarism in scholarly writing?
    • Recognizing and avoiding plagiarism are crucial to uphold academic integrity, respect intellectual property rights, and contribute to the credibility and originality of scholarly work. It also ensures the trustworthiness of research and maintains ethical standards within the academic community.