What are some of the development paradigms that were prominent in Latin America in the 1970’s and how did they serve to inform the ways in which Indigenous peoples’ development, including the discourse on Indigenous rights, have been framed by the Colombian state and Latin America’s wider discourse on multiculturalism?

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Topic: Indigenous people in development internationally; and more specifically, in Colombia. Please explore the tensions for the Awá and Nasa peoples to forge Indigenous sovereignty during ongoing armed conflict through an analysis of Corntassel’s (2008) conceptualization of Indigenous rights-based discourse and Rowse’s (2012) idea of Indigenous ‘recognition’. · Think about: what is at the heart of the armed conflict which has led to continued violence against, forced displacement and landlessness of the Awá and Nasa peoples particularly? What are some of the development paradigms that were prominent in Latin America in the 1970’s and how did they serve to inform the ways in which Indigenous peoples’ development, including the discourse on Indigenous rights, have been framed by the Colombian state and Latin America’s wider discourse on multiculturalism? Please find a way to suggest how this framing serves not only to justify the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) rebel group’s ongoing massacre of the Awá and Nasa peoples, but so too, does it become clear, that despite the country’s 2016 peace accord between FARC and the Colombian government, the new government’s failure to uphold its side of the agreement – leaving Indigenous peoples’ lands and lives subject to the abuses of paramilitary groups – relies on these framings to further marginalize the Awá and Nasa peoples, denounces their rights, and absolves the government of any responsibility to hold perpetrators responsible for the continued human rights violations of Indigenous peoples. · This is a research paper · Please use tables, figures, graphs, maps if necessary · Please include a thesis and develop a position based on the topic · · No title page · 5000-6000 words · Please include page numbers for in text citations · Please make sure to include as many ideas from the articles provided Please make sure to define ‘deficit discourse’ and ‘strength-based’ approaches. Please use this article to source definitions: Fogarty, W., Lovell, M., Langenberg, J. & Heron, M.-J. 2018, Deficit Discourse and Strengths-based Approache Please use the follow sub-headings. You are welcome to add new ones or create other sub-headings. I have included ideas on what to include under some headings. These are just suggestions. YOU DO NOT NEED TO USE THEM Executive Summary Introduction – Establish the importance of your research question/topic by putting it into context noting its relationship to a body of literature and specific issues and problems identified therein – State how you are proposing to address/answer your issue/question and justify this approach Situation Analysis – Include a brief historical analysis of the development paradigms that were influential in Latin America in the 1970’s, including the discourse on neoliberalism. Feel free to thread in Blaser et al.’s (2004), Povinelli’s (2010), and Pieterse’s (2009) positions on development and development theory to emphasize highlight the ways in which development ideologies play a role in informing policies which dictate who is represented or excluded and who is recognized by the state versus who is not (Escobar, 2010). – Provide a brief overview of the issue of the Awá and Nasa peoples’ struggle for self-determination, land rights, and protection during the resurgence of the armed conflict following the 2018 election of President Iván Duque, who opposed the 2016 peace accord Background – Define core terminologies and introduce defining key concepts such as Corntassel’s (2008) conceptualization of Indigenous rights-based discourse, Rowse’s (2012) idea of Indigenous recognition, ‘framing’, Indigenous standpoint theory, and their relationship to the issue/topic. Findings and Discussion 1. The Global ‘Indigenous Problem’: articulate how the development paradigms deployed by Latin America at the time, have become problematized in the global exercise of colonialism; and which framed Indigenous peoples as the problem that needed to be solved. Unpack how this framing informed the development of Latin America’s, project of racial stratification, of which Colombia took part, through the deployment of the Instituto Indigenista Interamericano which forced Indigenous peoples to renounce their identity if they wanted to ‘become Colombian’ and with the aim of modernizing to be on par with Europe’s idea of development. 2. The Multiculturalism Illusion: unpack how the Colombian state, through its push for a sort of multicultural liberalism, was used as a ploy to give the illusion that Indigenous peoples in fact had rights under its constitution and has often become a site where their rights, including citizenship, is (re)negotiated. This illusion, informed by how Indigenous peoples have been framed, is necessary for the Colombian state to justify its continued neglect of Indigenous peoples and deny them the right to sovereignty; which is also highlighted in the government’s failure to upholds its obligations to the 2016 peace deal which would recognize Indigenous people’s sovereignty. 3. Any other areas? 4. Please make sure to discuss the relationship between your examples and debates in the literature. Conclusions and Recommendations References Appendices Please use the following resources: ATTACHED SOURCES Blaser, Feit, H. A., & McRae, G. (2004). In the Way of Development: Indigenous Peoples, Life Projects and Globalization. IDRC Books/Les Éditions du CRDI. Bulloch, & Fogarty, W. (2016). Freeing the “Aboriginal Individual”: Deconstructing “Development as Freedom” in Remote Indigenous Australia. Social Analysis, 60(3), 76–94. Corntassel, J. (2012). Re-envisioning resurgence: Indigenous pathways to decolonization and sustainable self-determination. Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society, 1(1). Corntassel, J. (2008). Toward Sustainable Self-Determination: Rethinking the Contemporary Indigenous-Rights Discourse. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 33(1), 105–132. Dreise, T. (2019). ‘Are We Mates Yet? Agreement Making between States and First Nations. What the literature and prior experience tells us.’ A Topical Research Paper developed for Aboriginal Affairs New South Wales (AANSW). Escobar. (2010). Latin America at a Crossroads: Alternative modernizations, post-liberalism, or post-development? Cultural Studies (London, England), 24(1), 1–65. Escobar, & Rocheleau, D. (2008). Territories of Difference: Place, Movements, Life, Redes. Duke University Press. Howard-Wagner, D. (2021). Indigenous Invisibility in the City: Successful Resurgence and Community Development Hidden in Plain Sight. Taylor & Francis. Ioris, AAR. (2023). Indigeneity and Indigenous Politics: Ground-breaking Resources. Revista de Estudios Sociales (Bogotá, Colombia), 85, 3–21. Mignolo, & Escobar, A. (Eds.). (2010). Globalization and the decolonial option. Routledge. Povinelli. (2010). Indigenous politics in late liberalism. In Culture Crisis (pp. 17–31). UNSW Press. Pieterse, J N. (2009). Development Theory: deconstructions/reconstructions, Chapter 1: ‘Trends in development theory’, Sage Publications, London. Rowse. (2012). Rethinking social justice: from “peoples” to “populations.” Aboriginal Studies Press. Rueda-Saiz. (2017). Indigenous autonomy in Colombia: State-building processes and multiculturalism. Vanegas, F. (2009). ‘Indigenous People’s Mobilization and their Struggle for Rights in Colombia’ UNDRIP – United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples LINKED SOURCES IWGIA. (2020). ‘The end of the illusion for Indigenous Peoples in Colombia – https://www.iwgia.org/en/news/3908-the-end-of-the-illusion-for-indigenous-peoples-in-colombia.html Cultural Survival. (n.d.). ‘Colombia’s Indigenous Peoples and the Peace Accords’ https://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/colombias-indigenous-peoples-and-peace-accords