The relationship between metro station and surrounding built environment via walkability of TOD A case study of Riyadh, What are these in relation to Riyadh?

The major is Urban Design. This is a literature review of Ph.D thesis. The thesis title is: The relationship between metro station and the surrounding built environment via the walkability of transit orientated development (TOD): A case study of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia The literature of thesis should show fuller mastery of the literature by ensuring that the literature review is more complete and up to date with respect to the following: • The thesis should acknowledge that transit-oriented development (TOD) – i.e. Calthorpe’s original work – was a product of a certain time, culture and geographic location. In the interim TOD has been developed and applied in many different locations and cultures around the world. However, there are always risk and complications in the transferability of concepts form place to place. What are these in relation to Riyadh? • The thesis should take account of developments in TOD research in the quarter century since the key reference of Cervero and Kockelman (1997), hence addressing not only the “3Ds” but literature referring to the “5Ds” (Ewing and Cervero, 2001, 2010) and “7Ds” (e.g. Patnala et al., 2020, and preceding papers referred to there); and also other key literature addressing the relationship between built environment attributes and walking, the propensity to walk, and/or walkability (e.g. Ewing and Handy, 2009). • You should address the additional “Ds” (distance, destination accessibility, demand and demographics) in the literature review. • Summary tables clearly relating the different built environment factors and influence on walkability would be useful here. • The thesis – at least the literature review – should also refer to ‘transit adjacent development’ (e.g. Renne, 2009) and refer to this concept, and interpret it in relation to Riyadh, where appropriate. • The concept of walkability should be more clearly defined, in particular the different motivations for – and influences on – walking for pleasure and walking as mode of active travel should be explored. • What is meant by ‘sense of place’ should also be defined, and debates around the extent to which it can be created or develops over time should be included.

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The suggestions for references below relate to some key papers but it is the researcher’s responsibility to check out and select the most appropriate – we would expect to see a greater proportion of references in the last 5 years or so, than in the list below and as currently present in the thesis. Suggested references: TOD/Walkability: Cervero, Robert, and Kara Kockelman. “Travel demand and the 3Ds: Density, diversity, and design.” Transportation research part D: Transport and environment 2, no. 3 (1997): 199-219. Ewing, Reid, and Robert Cervero. “Travel and the built environment: a synthesis.” Transportation research record 1780, no. 1 (2001): 87-114. Ewing, Reid, and Robert Cervero. “Travel and the built environment: A meta-analysis.” Journal of the American planning association 76, no. 3 (2010): 265-294. Ewing, Reid, and Susan Handy. “Measuring the unmeasurable: Urban design qualities related to walkability.” Journal of Urban design 14, no. 1 (2009): 65-84. Patnala, Phani Kumar, Manoranjan Parida, and Ravi Sekhar Chalumuri. “A decision framework for defining Transit-Oriented Development in an Indian city.” Asian Transport Studies 6 (2020): 100021. Renne, John L. “From transit-adjacent to transit-oriented development.” Local Environment 14, no. 1 (2009): 1-15. Townshend T.G. (2014) Walkable Neighbourhoods: principles, measures and health impacts, in Burton E., & Cooper, R Well-being and the Environment, Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell. – (to help with defining walkability – the health impacts etc., can be ignored) Sense of Place: (there is a huge literature, but the following review key characteristics) Beidler, Kyle J., and Julia M. Morrison. “Sense of place: inquiry and application.” Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability 9.3 (2016): 205-215. Hashemnezhad, Hashem, Ali Akbar Heidari, and Parisa Mohammad Hoseini. “Sense of place” and “place attachment.” International journal of Architecture and Urban development 3.1 (2013): 5-12. Sepe, Marichela, and Michael Pitt. “The characters of place in urban design.” Urban Design International 19 (2014): 215-227 Paper details file called Literature Review and some suggested references are attached. The preferred written language is UK English. The style is Harvard style.

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