Individual research paper of approximately 15 pages and theoretical content. The font should be Times New Roman, size 12, with 1.5 line spacing. Footnotes should be in the same font, size 10,single-spaced. The topic is Restorative Justice in Italy , because In the course of 2021, the Italian Parliament has discussed a new reform to restore the Italian penal system, which is effectively coming into force by 2022. One of the tasks of which the “Cartabia Reform” works concerns probation implementation in Italian Justice. what is fundamental is that Restorative justice is not longer an alternative method but it is complimentary. Here are some specific areas to explore in your research: 1.Historical development. Investigate the historical development of restorative justice principles in Italy, considering any unique historical factors that may have influenced their evolution. 2.Legal framework. Examine the current legal framework for restorative justice in Italy, analyzing recent statutes, regulations and legal changes affecting its application. 3.Case studies. Incorporate case studies highlighting successful restorative justice interventions in Italy, discussing outcomes, challenges and roles of stakeholders. 4.Comparative analysis. Compare the Italian approach to restorative justice with other European countries, identifying similarities, differences and best practices. 5. Effectiveness and challenges. To evaluate the effectiveness of restorative justice programs in Italy, citing empirical evidence on their impact on crime rates, recidivism and community satisfaction. 6. Community involvement. To explore the role of communities in the restorative justice process in Italy and how their participation contributes to the success of initiatives. 7.Cultural and social considerations. To investigate how cultural and social factors contribute to the success of restorative justice initiatives. A case study we did at the lecture was about : restorative justice and terrorism, about ETA: Basque separatist organization in Spain that used terrorism in its campaign for an independent Basque state. It could be discussed in the essay in the part of the comparative analysis with other European Countries, as a successful outcome. “Remorseful ETA terrorists are asking victims’ relatives to pardon them for their bloody deeds. Discreet but highly emotive meetings are now taking place between former terrorists and victims’ families. Two protagonists talk of the experience. The initiative for the meetings came from ETA terrorists imprisoned at Nanclares de Oca. Many have had their sentences reduced for cutting ties with ETA and showing remorse for their crimes. Some prisoners have chosen to go a step further—to ask their surviving victims or their relatives to pardon them. Both sides agree to one pre-condition: no further reduction in the prisoners’ sentences Spain’s Office for the Victims of Terrorism took a hand in putting the convicts’ initiative into effect. Txema Urkijo, who has long been involved in peace initiatives in the Basque Country, played a key role. A team of mediation experts prepared the meetings with great care. Eleven meetings have been held to date. The former terrorists get the chance to speak to victims’ relatives and ask them for pardon whether for their own deeds or those of ETA as a whole”.
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