Essential Skills and Strategies for Success Essay

Assignment Question

5-1. Project contingency can be applied to projects for a variety of reasons. List three of the key reasons why a project organization should consider the application of budget contingency. 5-2. Define the following terms:(For this it does not need to be long definitions just one line each will do) Path Activity Early start Early finish Late start Late finish Forward pass Backward pass Node AON Float or Slack Critical path PERT LINKS TO THE VIDEOS ON ACTIVITY 5 6-1. Explain why authority on a project has to be defined and communicated with the project stakeholders and project staff. 6-2. What is the general purpose of defining the responsibilities of those affiliated with the project? 7-1. Describe what needs to be done to manage risk on a project. When should this be done? How can a risk assessment matrix help in this process? 7-2. How does project risk change as a project progresses? What changes are made to the risk assessment matrix as the changes occur? 12-7 Why are problem-solving meetings conducted? Who should call such meetings? Describe the approach that should be followed. THESE ARE THE LINKS TO THE VIDEOS ON THE ATTACHED FILES ON ACTIVITIE 6




Project management is a complex discipline that requires careful planning, execution, and control to achieve project objectives successfully. Within this field, the application of project contingency plays a pivotal role in ensuring the smooth progression of projects. Contingency involves the allocation of additional resources, particularly budgetary resources, to account for uncertainties and unexpected events that may arise during project execution. This allocation serves as a safety net, enabling project managers to respond effectively to unforeseen challenges without compromising project outcomes. In this essay, we will explore the key reasons why project organizations should consider the application of budget contingency. Furthermore, we will delve into essential project management terms, the importance of defining authority and responsibilities, effective risk management strategies, and the significance of problem-solving meetings in the project management context.

Project Contingency and its Application in Budget Management

Project contingency, particularly in the form of budget allocation, serves as a critical tool in managing projects effectively. One of the primary reasons why project organizations should consider budget contingency is its role in risk mitigation. In the realm of project management, risks are ever-present, ranging from external factors such as market fluctuations to internal issues like resource constraints. As highlighted by the Project Management Institute (PMI, 2017), “contingency reserves help protect the project from cost overruns due to risks.” These reserves provide a financial cushion, ensuring that unexpected costs do not derail the project’s financial stability. Secondly, the application of budget contingency is essential for building stakeholder confidence.

Projects often involve various stakeholders, including sponsors, clients, and team members. These stakeholders are more likely to support a project when they can see that it has a well-defined contingency plan in place. The existence of such a plan not only instills trust but also demonstrates a proactive approach to risk management. Stakeholder support and collaboration are invaluable assets in project execution (Schwalbe, 2018). Budget contingency empowers project managers with the flexibility needed for informed decision-making. Projects are dynamic, and unexpected events can arise at any time. Budget contingency allows project managers to adapt swiftly to emerging challenges or capitalize on unforeseen opportunities without compromising the project’s financial health. It fosters agility in decision-making and contributes to project success by ensuring that resources are available when needed (PMI, 2017).


Definitions of Key Project Management Terms

To navigate the world of project management effectively, a solid understanding of key terms and concepts is paramount. These definitions serve as the foundation upon which project management principles are built. Path Activity refers to a sequence of tasks or activities necessary to achieve a specific project goal. Early Start signifies the earliest possible start date for an activity, factoring in dependencies and constraints, while Early Finish represents the earliest possible finish date for the same activity. Late Start and Late Finish denote the latest allowable start and finish dates for an activity without delaying the overall project completion. The Forward Pass calculates early start and early finish times, and the Backward Pass calculates late start and late finish times for activities in a project schedule. A Node is a point in a project network diagram that represents an activity or event. In an Activity on Node (AON) diagram, activities are represented as nodes, and arrows indicate dependencies. Float or Slack is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without impacting the project’s overall timeline. The Critical Path is the longest path through the project network diagram, indicating the shortest possible project duration. Finally, the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) is a technique used to estimate activity durations by considering optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely time estimates (Schwalbe, 2018). These definitions form the language of project management, facilitating effective communication and collaboration among project teams and stakeholders.

Defining Authority and Responsibilities in Project Management

In the realm of project management, the establishment and communication of authority and responsibilities are essential. These actions serve several crucial purposes. Firstly, they create a clear hierarchy of decision-making and responsibility, reducing confusion and conflicts. Kerzner (2017) emphasizes that “defining authority levels ensures that decisions are made by individuals with the appropriate expertise and knowledge.” Clarity in authority promotes efficient and effective decision-making. Secondly, the definition of authority helps align project objectives with organizational goals. By ensuring that decision-makers have the necessary authority to allocate resources and prioritize tasks effectively, projects can contribute more effectively to the overarching goals of the organization. This alignment ensures that projects are strategically beneficial and not working at cross-purposes (PMBOK® Guide, 2017). The clarity of authority enhances accountability within the project team. When individuals understand their roles and responsibilities in achieving project success, they are more likely to take ownership of their tasks and contribute actively to project goals. Accountability is a driving force behind progress and project momentum (Kerzner, 2017).

The General Purpose of Defining Responsibilities

In addition to defining authority, it is equally essential to define responsibilities within a project. The general purpose of defining responsibilities is to create a structured framework for project execution. This framework outlines who is responsible for specific tasks or deliverables, facilitating coordination and collaboration among team members. This clarity ensures that every team member understands their role in achieving project goals, which is crucial for project success (Kerzner, 2017).

Managing Risk in Project Management

Effective risk management is a cornerstone of successful project execution. It involves identifying potential issues and uncertainties and devising strategies to mitigate their impact on project objectives. Risk management should be an ongoing process, initiated at the project’s inception and continued throughout its lifecycle. One invaluable tool in this process is the risk assessment matrix. A risk assessment matrix allows project teams to evaluate and prioritize risks based on their probability and impact. By systematically categorizing risks, project managers can focus their attention and resources on addressing the most critical threats. Regular updates to the risk assessment matrix are essential, enabling project teams to adapt to changing circumstances and ensure that risk mitigation strategies remain effective (PMBOK® Guide, 2017). As a project progresses, the nature of project risks can evolve. New risks may surface, while some existing risks may decrease in significance. This dynamic nature of project risk necessitates continuous monitoring and adjustments to the risk assessment matrix. Project managers should periodically review and update risk assessments to ensure that the project’s risk profile remains accurate and that mitigation strategies remain aligned with the project’s changing circumstances (Schwalbe, 2018).

Problem-Solving Meetings in Project Management

Problem-solving meetings in project management play a crucial role in addressing challenges that may hinder project progress. These meetings serve as a collaborative platform where project stakeholders, including project managers, team members, and relevant parties, come together to tackle issues and obstacles that arise during project execution. The process of problem-solving meetings typically involves a structured approach: Firstly, the participants identify the specific problem or challenge that needs to be addressed, ensuring clarity about the issue at hand. Subsequently, they gather relevant data and information related to the problem, aiming to gain a comprehensive understanding of its underlying causes and implications. The meeting then transitions into a brainstorming phase, where all stakeholders actively engage in generating potential solutions to the identified problem. This open exchange of ideas encourages creativity and diverse perspectives, fostering innovative solutions.

Following the brainstorming session, the proposed solutions are evaluated and prioritized based on their feasibility, effectiveness, and alignment with project goals. This step ensures that the most suitable solution is selected for implementation. Once a decision is reached regarding the preferred solution, responsibilities are assigned to individuals or teams for executing the chosen course of action. Clarity in responsibilities is crucial to ensure that the solution is implemented effectively and in a timely manner. Lastly, a timeline for resolution and follow-up is established to track progress and monitor the successful implementation of the chosen solution. This step ensures that the issue is fully addressed and that any necessary adjustments can be made if the initial solution proves insufficient. Problem-solving meetings are essential for maintaining project momentum and achieving project goals. They serve as a proactive approach to address challenges as they arise, preventing potential roadblocks from derailing the project’s progress. These meetings can be called by project managers or initiated by team members whenever significant issues require collective input and decision-making, emphasizing their significance in effective project management (Kerzner, 2017).


In the realm of project management, effective planning, execution, and control are essential for achieving project objectives. Project contingency, particularly in the form of budget allocation, serves as a critical tool to navigate the uncertainties and challenges that projects inherently entail. It mitigates risks, builds stakeholder confidence, and empowers project managers with the flexibility needed for informed decision-making. Understanding key project management terms and the importance of defining authority and responsibilities within the project team are foundational aspects of effective project management. These concepts enable clear communication, streamlined decision-making, and enhanced accountability, all of which are essential for project success. Additionally, managing risk is an ongoing process that involves identifying, assessing, and mitigating potential threats to project objectives. The risk assessment matrix is a valuable tool for systematically categorizing and prioritizing risks, ensuring that project teams focus on addressing the most critical issues.

Lastly, problem-solving meetings play a pivotal role in addressing challenges that may hinder project progress. They provide a collaborative forum for stakeholders to identify solutions, make decisions, and ensure that projects remain on track. In conclusion, project contingency, the understanding of key project management concepts, the definition of authority and responsibilities, effective risk management, and problem-solving meetings are integral components of successful project management. By embracing and implementing these concepts, project managers can enhance project outcomes, foster stakeholder satisfaction, and ultimately contribute to the successful completion of projects.



Kerzner, H. (2017). Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling. Wiley.

PMI (Project Management Institute). (2017). A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide). Project Management Institute.

Schwalbe, K. (2018). Information Technology Project Management. Cengage Learning.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What is project management?

Project management is the discipline of planning, executing, and controlling projects to achieve specific goals and objectives within defined constraints such as time, budget, and resources.

2. Why is project management important?

Project management is crucial for ensuring that projects are completed efficiently, on time, and within budget. It helps organizations achieve their strategic objectives and deliver value to stakeholders.

3. What is a project scope?

Project scope defines the specific goals, deliverables, tasks, and features that are included in a project. It outlines what will be done and what will not be done in the project.

4. What is a project manager’s role?

A project manager is responsible for planning, executing, and overseeing all aspects of a project. Their role includes defining objectives, managing resources, monitoring progress, and ensuring project success.

5. What is a project timeline or schedule?

A project timeline or schedule is a visual representation of the sequence of tasks and activities in a project, along with their start and end dates. It helps in tracking progress and managing deadlines.