Discuss the impact of eccentric-specific resistance training on the neuromuscular system of Older Adults.

Assignment Question

This will be an assignment for my doctoral health and human performance concentration: This is a revision of my comprehensive exam and the revision requests are provided in the files section, along with the original document needed to be revised. There are two sections to this work and full instructions are provided in the files section.

For this assignment, you will be discussing the impact of resistance training (specifically eccentric-specific resistance training) on the neuromuscular system among healthy, older adults.

Question 1: Health and Human Performance Specialization (10 – 13 pages)

Read carefully and respond to each item in the scenario below. Provide specific examples as well as citations from the health and human performance literature. Use current and relevant research as well as readings drawn from your course of study, with a focus placed on original research from peer-reviewed scientific journals. Provide proper within-text citations and a list of references as a separate page(s) after your response. All content must be formatted according to the 7th edition APA manual. Background Information and Audience Throughout your coursework, you learned about the specific physiology of the cardiovascular system, the neuromuscular system, as well as nutrient/mineral handling and the effect of training and disease on other common physiological systems. You were introduced to the non- pathological (normal) functioning of the physiological systems, effects of training on these systems, and some common clinical conditions that are reflective of abnormal physiology of these systems. To understand changes from disease or adaptations to training one must first demonstrate understanding of “normal” physiology. As part of your task, you are asked to compare and contrast normal physiological function vs. physiological adaptations in response to training. This knowledge will then be used to help formulate and design an original research study proposal (Question 2) within the context of your chosen system and population. Your hypothetical audience will include Physiology Faculty members and representatives of an Institutional Review Board.

Question 1 (10-13 pages): Your task is to present a literature review of at least 10 original and current research studies using original, peer-reviewed articles (not including review articles) focused on presenting the impact of resistance training on the neuromuscular system of healthy, older adults. Your answer is to include 1) a discussion of normal “healthy” functioning physiology for your chosen system; 2) a presentation of how this system’s components change in response to your chosen training mode (eccentric-focused resistance training) in your chosen population; and 3) why/how this is occurring in your chosen population. Be prepared to compare and contrast those aspects of your chosen system you highlighted in “normal physiology” with adaptations in response to training. Ex. How a motor neuron functions normally vs. training- related adaptations to a motor neuron’s function. You are not being asked to present an anatomical summary of each system. You are welcome to focus on a specific type of training within the overarching umbrella of “resistance” or “aerobic endurance”. For example, eccentric-specific resistance training, or concentric-specific resistance training, or resistance training using load schemes associated with strength outcomes, or resistance training using load schemes associated with hypertrophy outcomes, or high intensity interval training (aerobic), or long, slow distance aerobic training, or tempo training etc. You are encouraged to focus your short review on some, not all aspects of your chosen system and to go into depth for those selected aspects of the system. A proficient discussion must include integrative writing, clear inclusion of mechanistic rationale for the findings you present, and the representation of data. At least 10 original intervention-based research studies must be actively reviewed within the body of your narrative to count towards the minimum resource requirement. All resource material must be from scholarly, empirically based, peer-reviewed sources that involve original research studies (not reviews) related to your topic of interest. If you include sources that are review articles, be advised they do not count towards the 10-article minimum. This narrative must offer a scholarly integration of information, not simply a summary, list or annotated bibliography of what has been done. Synthesize common threads in the existing research related to your topic of choice. Identify patterns in the literature gaps, and future directions. Integration requires some compare/contrast across studies. Suggested program resources can be found in course material from: HHP 7000, HHP 7010, HHP 7050, HHP 7060, HHP 7020 Background Information and Audience: Throughout your coursework, you learned about the specific physiology of the cardiovascular system, the neuromuscular system, as well as nutrient/mineral handling and the effect of training and disease on other common physiological systems. You were introduced to the non- pathological (normal) functioning of the physiological systems, effects of training on these systems, and some common clinical conditions that are reflective of abnormal physiology of these systems. To understand changes from disease or adaptations to training one must first demonstrate understanding of “normal” physiology. This knowledge will then be used to help formulate and design an original research study proposal (Question 2) within the context of your chosen system and population. Your hypothetical audience will include Physiology Faculty members and representatives of an Institutional Review Board. For this research study, you will be discussing the impact of resistance training (specifically eccentric-specific resistance training) on the neuromuscular system among healthy, older adults.

Question 2: Research Study (10-13 pages).

Your second task is to design an original research study implementing an exercise or nutrition intervention specifically designed to address the impact of resistance training (specifically eccentric-specific resistance training) on the neuromuscular system among healthy, older adults.This intervention study must be evidence-based and specifically address aspects of the physiological system discussed in Question 1. You may use tables and/or figures to help demonstrate your response. This proposed study cannot be a replication study and you must identify the need for the study around gaps in the literature [identified in the Question 2 Introduction]. This design cannot be educational in nature [i.e. education training/workshops, etc]. The following must be addressed, & organized in the same order, in your original research study:

a. Present a brief (2-3 paragraphs) introduction demonstrating the foundation, gaps in the literature, need, and proposed purpose of this research study proposal. Within this introduction, identify the specific Exercise or Nutrition intervention you will be using for your original research study proposal- this intervention must be evidence-based (i.e. you must support your choice with sources/gaps in the literature).  You cannot use an educational/curriculum/workshop or seminar “intervention” for this proposal.

b. Outline the Purpose, Research Questions, and Hypotheses * Clearly identify the Purpose of the proposed research study * Outline specific research questions and associated hypothesis statements for this research study proposal. Be specific and clear with what outcome measures you will be measuring to help you answer each research question. An outcome measure is a dependent variable. You will expand on your independent and dependent variables within subsection d. “Methodology”. Your hypotheses are to be directional in nature based on supporting literature.

c. Briefly (1-2 paragraphs) describe a theoretical framework that can be used to successfully apply this specific proposal to your chosen population. d. Methodology [use sub-headings to organize content] * Study design * Participant information [population, target #, how did you select that target #, etc.] * Outcome Measures * Procedures * Compliance v. Proposed Statistical Analysis Factors that need to be identified within the Methodology sections: What are the participant characteristics/inclusion/exclusionary criteria? What are the measured and manipulated variables? Specify, step-by-step, the intervention strategies for this research. How long is the intervention? What specific interventions are included? Who will implement the intervention? What is the instrumentation? What evidence is the intervention’s effectiveness based on? What is the reliability and validity for the instruments proposed? How will you determine compliance? How will you determine success of the study? What statistical analysis would be proposed based on your design, manipulated, and outcome measures?

Remember this study has not been done. You are to frame your response as a proposal. Do not make up data or conclusions. Textbooks, blogs, magazine or internet articles, book chapters, or special reports, do not count toward the peer-reviewed minimum. Connections to the peer reviewed references should be used throughout your writing with in-text citations and matching reference citations.