Consider contemporary media representations of historically marginalized groups, and provide one negative example and one positive example.

Assignment Question

“The documentary 13th addresses social inequality that is rampant in the United States criminal justice system. The documentary outlines some of the ways racial inequality has been socially constructed and maintained over the decades, from the 18th century to the present. One of the ways this inequality is maintained is through media representation, including fictional media dating all the way back to Birth of a Nation. Consider contemporary media representations of historically marginalized groups, and provide one negative example and one positive example. Explain what makes the first one weak and the second, strong. The group being portrayed may deal with issues of race, gender, sexuality, or another axis of social identity.”

Assignment Answer

Media Representation of Marginalized Groups in the United States: A Critical Analysis


The documentary “13th” delves into the deep-seated social inequality ingrained within the United States criminal justice system. It not only highlights the racial disparities that exist within the system but also provides a historical perspective on how these inequalities have been socially constructed and perpetuated for centuries. Media representation, both fictional and non-fictional, plays a pivotal role in shaping public perceptions and maintaining these inequalities. This essay examines contemporary media representations of historically marginalized groups, focusing on one negative and one positive example, and explores the reasons behind their effectiveness or ineffectiveness. The marginalized groups being portrayed may face issues related to race, gender, sexuality, or another axis of social identity.


Negative Example: Stereotypical Depictions of African Americans in Film

Historically, the media has been a powerful tool in shaping public perceptions of various racial and ethnic groups, often perpetuating harmful stereotypes. An illustrative negative example can be found in the portrayal of African Americans in early 20th-century cinema, which laid the foundation for long-lasting misconceptions. One such film that exemplifies these stereotypes is D.W. Griffith’s “The Birth of a Nation” (1915). This landmark in the history of cinema is notorious for its racial caricatures and offensive portrayals of African Americans.

“The Birth of a Nation” depicted African American characters through the lens of white supremacism. Black characters were often portrayed as caricatures, reinforcing existing stereotypes. These stereotypes included the belief that African Americans were inherently lazy, unintelligent, and prone to criminal behavior. The film’s portrayal of African Americans as menacing and sexually predatory towards white women further fueled racism and contributed to the perpetuation of Jim Crow laws and segregation in the United States.

The negative aspects of this portrayal are multifaceted. Firstly, it reinforces harmful stereotypes, reinforcing prejudice and discrimination against African Americans. Such representations not only perpetuate racism but also justify unequal treatment within society. Secondly, the film inaccurately portrays African Americans as a monolithic group with limited diversity, overlooking the vast differences among individuals within the group. This homogenization serves to dehumanize African Americans and strip them of their individuality.

Positive Example: The Representation of LGBTQ+ Individuals in “Pose”

In contrast to the negative example, positive representations of historically marginalized groups in media can significantly contribute to breaking down stereotypes and promoting social inclusion. A notable example of this is the FX series “Pose,” which portrays the LGBTQ+ community, particularly transgender individuals of color, in a complex and empathetic manner.

“Pose,” created by Steven Canals, Brad Falchuk, and Ryan Murphy, is set in the late 1980s and early 1990s and explores the lives of African American and Latinx LGBTQ+ individuals involved in New York City’s ballroom culture. The show provides multi-dimensional characters with compelling storylines and challenges the stereotypes and stigmas often associated with transgender and LGBTQ+ communities. Through nuanced storytelling, it humanizes the characters and helps viewers understand the challenges and discrimination they face.

What makes “Pose” a strong positive example of media representation is its ability to challenge stereotypes and foster empathy. The series portrays LGBTQ+ individuals as diverse, multi-faceted, and resilient. By doing so, it humanizes a group that has often been subjected to prejudice, discrimination, and violence. “Pose” not only gives visibility to transgender and LGBTQ+ people of color but also highlights their struggles and achievements. This representation contributes to increased understanding, compassion, and acceptance of LGBTQ+ individuals, ultimately promoting social equality.

Media Representation and Social Identity

Media representation is intrinsically linked to social identity. How various social groups are portrayed in the media can either perpetuate existing stereotypes and inequalities or contribute to their dismantling. This section explores the relationship between media representation and social identity, focusing on race, gender, and sexuality.

Race and Media Representation

The representation of race in the media has profound effects on societal perceptions and interactions. Historically, racial and ethnic groups, particularly African Americans, Native Americans, and Latinx populations, have been subjected to negative stereotypes and caricatures. These depictions can lead to racial bias, discrimination, and unequal treatment within various sectors, including the criminal justice system.

Negative media representations of marginalized racial groups, like the African American community in films such as “Birth of a Nation,” have contributed to the perpetuation of racial inequalities. These representations not only reinforce harmful stereotypes but also dehumanize individuals within these groups, making it easier to justify unequal treatment and violence.

In recent years, there has been a push for more accurate and positive representations of marginalized racial groups in the media. However, challenges persist, as racial bias and unequal access to media production continue to shape portrayals. Positive examples like “Black Panther” (2018) show the potential for empowering and affirmative representation, promoting racial pride, and countering stereotypes.


Gender and Media Representation

Gender representation in the media also plays a crucial role in shaping societal norms and expectations. Historically, media has perpetuated traditional gender roles and stereotypes, reinforcing the subordination of women and the exclusion of gender-diverse individuals.

Negative examples include the objectification and hypersexualization of women in advertising and the underrepresentation of women in positions of power and agency in film and television. Such representations can contribute to gender inequality, objectification, and discrimination against women.

Conversely, positive media representations challenge gender stereotypes and advocate for gender equality. For example, the “Wonder Woman” (2017) film provides a strong female lead who is portrayed as powerful, intelligent, and independent. Such representations not only empower women and girls but also contribute to the broader conversation about gender equality.

Sexuality and Media Representation

Media representation of sexuality is another critical dimension of social identity. Historically, LGBTQ+ individuals have been subjected to harmful stereotypes and stigmatization in the media. These stereotypes, including the depiction of gay men as effeminate or lesbians as overly sexualized, have contributed to the marginalization and discrimination of LGBTQ+ individuals.

Negative media representations of LGBTQ+ individuals can reinforce prejudice and discrimination. These depictions perpetuate stereotypes and often reduce complex, multifaceted individuals to a narrow and inaccurate set of characteristics.

Positive media representations, like “Pose,” contribute to dismantling these stereotypes and increasing social acceptance. By portraying LGBTQ+ individuals as multi-dimensional characters with their own struggles, achievements, and agency, the media can foster empathy and understanding, ultimately challenging the discrimination and inequality faced by these communities.

Media Representation and Social Construction

Media representation not only reflects existing social inequalities but also plays a role in constructing and perpetuating them. This section explores the concept of media representation as a tool for social construction, focusing on the criminal justice system and the reinforcement of racial inequalities.

Media Representation and the Criminal Justice System

The criminal justice system is one of the key areas where media representation can have a profound impact on social construction. Media depictions of crime, criminals, and law enforcement can shape public perceptions and influence policies and practices within the criminal justice system.

Historically, African Americans have been disproportionately portrayed as criminals in the media, a trend that has its roots in films like “Birth of a Nation.” These depictions have contributed to the social construction of African Americans as inherently criminal and dangerous, perpetuating racial profiling, harsh sentencing, and the over-policing of Black communities.

Media representations can also contribute to the stigmatization of ex-convicts, making it difficult for them to reintegrate into society. These depictions reinforce the cycle of criminalization and discrimination, making it harder for individuals to break free from the criminal justice system’s grip.

Positive media representations, on the other hand, can challenge these constructions and promote more just and equitable criminal justice policies. Documentaries like “13th” provide a critical analysis of the system’s racial disparities, bringing attention to the issues of mass incarceration and racial profiling. Such media can mobilize public support for reform and contribute to changing the social construction of crime and justice.

The Power of Media in Shaping Perceptions

Media has an immense influence on public perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors. It is a primary source of information and entertainment for people of all ages, making it a potent tool for shaping societal norms and values. The way media portrays historically marginalized groups can either perpetuate stereotypes, biases, and discrimination or challenge these harmful narratives.

Negative media representations, such as the historical depictions of African Americans in “Birth of a Nation,” have the power to fuel racism and inequality. They reinforce harmful stereotypes, dehumanize individuals within marginalized groups, and contribute to the cycle of prejudice and discrimination. These representations have real-world consequences, affecting the treatment of these groups within institutions like the criminal justice system.

Conversely, positive media representations, exemplified by shows like “Pose” and documentaries like “13th,” can contribute to dismantling stereotypes, fostering empathy, and promoting social inclusion. These representations humanize marginalized groups, challenge harmful narratives, and call for social change. They have the potential to reshape societal perceptions, influence public policy, and ultimately contribute to a more just and equitable society.


Media representation is a powerful force in shaping perceptions and reinforcing or challenging social inequalities. Historically marginalized groups, including those based on race, gender, and sexuality, have often been subjected to negative and harmful stereotypes in the media. These stereotypes contribute to the perpetuation of social inequalities, including those within the criminal justice system.

Negative media representations, like the portrayal of African Americans in “The Birth of a Nation,” can perpetuate harmful stereotypes, reinforce prejudice, and contribute to the dehumanization and discrimination of marginalized groups. In contrast, positive media representations, such as the depiction of the LGBTQ+ community in “Pose” and the critical analysis of racial disparities in “13th,” can challenge stereotypes, promote empathy, and foster social inclusion.

As society continues to grapple with issues of inequality, discrimination, and social justice, the role of media representation becomes increasingly significant. To build a more equitable and inclusive society, it is essential for media creators and consumers to critically evaluate the portrayals of historically marginalized groups in the media and advocate for more accurate and positive representations that challenge stereotypes and promote social change.



  1. DuVernay, A. (Director). (2016). 13th [Documentary]. Netflix.
  2. Griffith, D. W. (Director). (1915). The Birth of a Nation [Film]. Epoch Producing Company.
  3. Canals, S., Falchuk, B., & Murphy, R. (Creators). (2018). Pose [Television series]. FX.
  4. Jenkins, P. (Director). (2017). Wonder Woman [Film]. Warner Bros. Pictures.
  5. Coogler, R. (Director). (2018). Black Panther [Film]. Marvel Studios.